Common Types of IV Pumps and How They Work

Patients that have diabetes, cancer, pain management, nutrition problems and other illnesses might use Pump Therapy. The IV Infusion Pump has a high level of control, accuracy, and precision in delivering drugs, fluids, and nutrition. The IV allows the medicine to be given to the patient in a controlled manner over a period. Some pumps deliver large qualities while others deliver small amounts.

The Two Types of IV Pumps

There are two basic types of pumps large volume, and small volume. Large volume uses a peristaltic method to give the infusion. The large volume is capable of pumping nutrition supplements large enough to feed a patient. Small volume pumps have two different ways of delivering medicine. One is a computer-controlled motor that pushes against a syringe in the pump. The second is through osmosis. A bag of salt solution swells as it absorbs water. The bag then pushes the medicine out. The salt solution controls the rate of the infusion. A syringe replenishes the substance.

Types of Specialized IV Pumps

There are many types of IV pumps on the market. Which one to get is dependent on what task you need the pump to complete. Enteral pumps are used to deliver nutrients to the digestive tract. People who cannot get the nutrition that they need use Enteral Pumps. A tube is put into the nose and passed down into the stomach or is surgically placed through the abdominal wall and attached to an IV pump. Some of the pumps are portable and even come with backpack attachments.

Patient Controlled Analgesia or PCA is a pump used to manage a patient’s pain. People recovering from surgery or other types of pain often use this type of pump. This pump contains a syringe of pain medication. It is attached to the patient’s IV and can offer a small constant flow or puts out a small dose when the patient pushes a button.

Patients suffering from diabetes use an insulin pump. An insulin pump provides small doses of insulin throughout the day or doses after a meal. The pump is small about the size of a pack of card. A tube attached to the pump inserts under a layer of fat in the stomach.

How the IV Pump Works

There are two ways that a pump can administer medicine. The first way is called peristaltic. In this method, fingers or rollers on a drum squeeze to force fluid down the tube in a controlled manner. The second method uses a cassette filled with fluid. The cassette empties by a pumping action. Quasi-peristaltic Infusion pumps use both types of ways to administer their medicine.

The Infusion Rate of IV Pumps

There are three different types of infusion rates found in IV pumps. Continuous Infusion consists of small pulses between 20 nanoliters to 100 microliters. Intermittent Infusion has a high infusion rate that is programmable. Patient-controlled is infusion on demand. The patient pushes a button to start the infusion. The dose is preprogrammed to avoid intoxication.

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